Documentation for ad confirmation protocol


I wanted to learn more about ad confirmation protocol used in Brave.

So far I could find this wiki article in github.

Is there any resource that elaborates the protocol more ? Perhaps a published paper ?


Most of what was written in the above wiki article, to my understanding, was how a user can claim reward after interacting with an ad.

I wanted to know more about the safety measures while interacting with an Ad. For example, how are events (e.g. conversions) correctly attributed to the ad that caused it ? i.e. mechanics similar to Private Click Measurements, Interoperable Private Attribution for Brave.

I could find the above wiki link through this article.

If you could help out in any way or have any query I could clarify, please let me know.


If there are some experimental results on how well these methods of measuring conversion work, it would be really nice, especially for the Verifiable Ad Conversion. Or, what are the shortcomings ?

My understanding is that measuring Ad Conversions is difficult and known methods have shortcomings. For example, this article highlights some concerns with Google Reporting API. While I fully agree with these concerns, I’d very much like to understand how Brave does it. I also checked Click Measurement API but felt it wasn’t sufficient.

Appreciate any help with this. Meanwhile I’ll try to check more to see if I can find anything useful.

@steeven @mattches please look into this.

In the following methods, the advertiser set landing page or server records whether a conversion occurred – whether by counting the number of times unique web page was loaded or checking the value of referral code or checking the value of cookie.

  1. Unique landing page URL
  2. Referral/promo code for conversions
  3. Query string parameters (i.e. UTMs)

If it is sensible to assume that the advertiser has in his interest to not give the ad publisher credit for conversion because the reward offered for successful conversion maybe higher than that for impression – would an advertiser be able to do so i.e. not reveal his true conversion value ?
Without the advertiser reported conversion value, how does Brave hold the advertiser accountable or is it even its job to do so ?
I believed conversion was tracked independently by both advertiser and publisher’s ad servers through redirects and checked for discrepancy. Is that the case here as well ?

Please feel free to correct me if I missed out on anything.


Perhaps the question was a bit trivial thing to ask because an advertiser would probably want to submit his conversion value to learn whether the ad campaign helped and if he can improve something. Apologies for the above misguided question.

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