You are using the Microsoft Windows OS. The built-in Internet browser is called Edge.
Edge (it is based upon the Chromium “engine” - also used by Brave), has a Developer Tools feature (as does Brave Browser); and Microsoft has instructions for you, on how to use Developer Tools. When you get a Developer Tools console window opened, select the Network tool:
Visit your web sites of interest. For each, examine the Developer Tools > Network . . . for the many, many “scripts” that are downloaded to your computer.
Without constant policing by the many, many sources of those scripts, How do you know, that the scripts are safe? That the scripts are not Key Loggers nor grabbing images of your Internet browser windows?
The answer to your question, is, that there are many processes that are attempting to make some in-road to your devices that are connected to a network . . . and also, gathering info about you.
If you believe Brave to be a security problem, then why not Microsoft’s Edge?
In the meantime, get to know How to use Developer Tools > Network, for any Internet browser that is your choice, to use.
And learn more, about Kaspersky Internet Security . . . there is likely to be some list or log that shows the various items that are allowed or blocked or in some quarantine status. And some of those items, might have already (by some default process during installation of the Kaspersky software) . . . been added without you personally inspecting each item.
I agree with you, that it is a surprise, that Brave Browser – according to Kaskpersky Internet Security – attempted to gather info about, or use, your computer’s camera.
But, you will find, over time, other processes that are also trying to do something that you may not like. That is a reason why Kaspersky (and other such network security firewall-type programs) created the window that you encountered.
And, that is also why every Internet browser has so many switches that you need to study and know well. Along with all the switches and featurs of some security and/or firewall applications.
Be determined to learn about, what you are discovering:
That the size of the general instrument panel (the combination of many applications and processes that we use), with its maze of options, preferences, settings, and switches . . . that affect and control our connections to, and use of, our computing devices PLUS our network connections . . . is much bigger than we wish . . . but in order to succeed at using the technology, there is much study.
A lot of Brave Browser development, apparently occurs at the GitHub website. That place is a mess, but I continue to struggle with learning about it.